The Architecture of the Muslim Caliphate in Spain and North Africa (756-1500).



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Lambert, E. (1958) `Art Musulman et Art Chretien dans la Peninsul Iberique’, Editions Privat, Paris.


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[i] This work is being referred to for the dating purpose only, we must worn our readers that it is full of nonsense as the author devoted all his efforts to argue -without success- the Jewish origin of Al-Hambra as if Muslim civilisation in Andalusia was none but Jewish.

[i] Descending from Ibrahim Ibn Alghlab, the Emir designated by Harun al-Rashid (786-809)to rule North Africa

[ii] This date refers to the formal foundation of the Mosque, but the remaining structure belongs to two main periods.  The minaret is believed to belong to the Umayyad Caliph Hisham built between 724 and 727.  The rest of the structure belongs to the reign of the Aghlabid Emir Ziyadat Allah (began in 836).

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