Appreciating Beauty in Islam-3

 

For example, Abu Talha reported: I heard Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) as saying: “Angels do not enter the house in which there is a dog or a statue.”[2]

As a matter of fact, the aforementioned criterion pertaining to two-dimensional drawings is universal in Islamic arts and presides over not only representations of humans but also over all other more readily permitted kinds of painting. Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi has said that making and acquiring drawings or paintings of trees, lakes, ships, mountains and landscapes of this sort is all permitted, provided they are not created to be worshipped in the place of or in addition to God, or intended to imitate God’s creation, or treated in a manner indicative of exorbitant respect, or they distract from worship, or lead toward extravagant living. Having dwelled on the matter, Yusuf al-Qardawi concluded that there is no difference among scholars in this regard.[3]

About this, Sa’id b. Abu al-Hasan narrated: While I was with Ibn ‘Abbas, a man came and said: “O father of ‘Abbas! My sustenance is from my manual profession and I make these pictures.” Ibn ‘Abbas said: “I will tell you only what I heard from Allah’s Messenger. I heard him saying: “Whoever makes a picture will be punished by Allah till he puts life in it, and he will never be able to put life in it.” Hearing this, that man heaved a sigh and his face turned pale. Ibn ‘Abbas said to him: “What a pity! If you insist on making pictures, I advise you to make pictures of trees and any other unanimated objects.”[4]

Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi also remarked that “as for figures drawn or printed on wood, paper, cloth, rugs and carpets, walls, and the like, there is no sound, explicit and straightforward text to prove that they are forbidden. True, there are sound ahadith (traditions) which merely indicate the Prophet’s dislike for such types of pictures because they are reminiscent of those who live in luxury and love things of inferior value.”[5] At any rate, in every work of art we have to inquire about its use, position, function and atmosphere it spawns, about the exact substance represented, about the intentions and aims of the artist, and all that – before passing our judgment concerning the same.

Some of the Prophet’s traditions that Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi had in mind are as follows. Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet (pbuh) has said: “Gabriel, or Jibril, came to me and said: “I came to you last night and was prevented from entering simply because there were images at the door, for there was a decorated curtain with images on it in the house, and there was a dog in the house. So order the head of the image which is in the house to be cut off so that it resembles the form of a tree; order the curtain to be cut up and made into two cushions spread out on which people may tread; and order the dog to be turned out.”[6]

Also, narrated Busr bin Sa’id that Zayd b. Khalid al-Juhani narrated to him something in the presence of Sa’id b. ‘Ubaydullah al-Khaulani, who was brought up in the house of Maymuna, the wife of the Prophet (pbuh). Zayd narrated to them that Abu Talha said that the Prophet (pbuh) said: “The Angels (of Mercy) do not enter a house wherein there is a picture.” Busr said: “Later on Zayd b. Khalid fell ill and we called on him. To our surprise we saw a curtain decorated with pictures in his house. I said to Ubaydullah al-Khaulani: “Didn’t he (i.e. Zayd) tell us about the (prohibition of) pictures?” He said: “But he excepted the embroidery on garments. Didn’t you hear him?” I said: “No.” He said: “Yes, he did.”[7]

Also: The Prophet’s wife ‘A’isha reported: We had a curtain with us which had portraits of birds upon it. Whenever a visitor came, he found them in front of him. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) said to me: “Change them, for whenever I enter the room I see them and it brings to my mind (the pleasures) of worldly life.”[8]

Also, ‘A’isha reported: Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) visited me and I had a shelf with a thin cloth curtain hanging over it and on which there were portraits. No sooner did he see it than he tore it and the color of his face underwent a change and he said: “‘A’isha, the most grievous torment from the Hand of Allah on the Day of Resurrection would be for those who imitate (Allah) in the act of His creation. ‘A’isha said: “We tore it into pieces and made a cushion or two cushions out of that.”[9]

Why the Prophet (pbuh) seemed very uncompromising when it comes to figures and art work executed on plane surfaces is, most of all, the uncompromising reaction of Islam against worshipping images of myriad kinds found at the time of revelation virtually everywhere, including the walls of private dwellings and places of worship. Some of the Prophet’s traditions pertaining to the subject in question most probably originated when paganism was still very much alive and the new religion was yet to be secured in the hearts and psyches of many people, as they had only recently come out of the state of idol-worship and were prone to sanctifying pictures and figures. Hence, a calculating approach designed to prevent such people from plunging back into polytheism (shirk), intentionally or otherwise, had to be embraced. Some even suggest on the strength of some traditions that the Prophet (pbuh) sometime later, as the belief in the Oneness of God was becoming deeply rooted in the hearts and minds of the masses, allowed them certain two-dimensional figures, that is, drawings and prints, although he himself disliked very much everything thereof.[10]

The Prophet (pbuh) accentuated in rather practical terms the unyielding position of Islam on the issue of inapt paintings when he, towards the end of his prophetic mission after the triumphant entry into Makkah from Madinah, went inside the Ka’bah and ordered all the pictures in it to be obliterated. On the pictures, some angels, prophets and trees were represented. After they had all been deleted, only then did the Prophet (pbuh) enter the Ka’bah and pray inside it.[11]

Ahmad Muhammad ‘Isa, an Arab scholar, went so far as to assert with unusual boldness that “if the problem of the making of representations had not been connected with the idols of the Ka’bah and the quarrel between the Muslims and the polytheists which arose over them, the Prophet (pbuh) might have given his explicit consent to the making of representations and statues, which in his law would have occupied a position like that which they have in the law of Solomon (the jinn used to make statues for Solomon (Saba’ 13).”[12]

Nonetheless, even though drawing humans on a limited scale and in qualified environments appears not to be totally against the framework of Islamic values and principles, on condition that the rigorous standards were always duly adhered to, yet the Muslim aesthetic conscience was experiencing great difficulties throughout while trying to accept the acts relating to painting humans and transforming the same to fit the delicate Islamic aesthetic demands. While some liberals permitted the use of human depictions in secular works of art, more conservative groups or individuals were of the opinion that such should be condemned outright even in those. That is the reason why figural painting was and remained a rare, private, secular, and for some even forbidden enterprise in every age of the Islamic presence. In the early exemplary days of Islam, it was totally disregarded even in private and secular domains; it started coming to light after the third generation of the Muslims. Even then, however, figural painting was limited to a few geographical areas and to a few strictly private and secular human pursuits, seen as a strong influence from certain pre-Islamic artistic cultures. Yet, it never became universally accepted and practiced, as a result of which figural painting failed in establishing itself as an integral part of the Muslim civilizational and cultural contribution.[13]

It ought to be pointed out clearly here that seldom were the goals of those whose attention was engaged by the subject of figural painting any different from those who indulged themselves with the other aspects of Islamic fine arts. Most of the time, their objective was identical, that is, creating a piece of art capable of drawing the viewer’s attention away from the naturalistic form of the represented object to an intuition of the other-than-nature qualities of Divinity. Consequently, figurative objects, not only human but also animal, were as a rule denaturalized, heavily stylized and abstracted from their naturalistic forms. In such an unprecedented artistic expression of human beings, persons represented were bound to appear without their individual characters, without real relation between them, without their psychological involvement with each other, emotionless, indifferent, etc. The subject of depth and perspective in paintings was also greatly affected for the same reason.[14]

Lois Lamya al-Faruqi recapitulates: “(Figural painting in Islamic culture) was an art which developed late and never enjoyed widespread approval, appreciation or participation that was accorded to other arts which were more compatible with the Islamic aesthetic goals. It should be noted that even this not-typical art form, was so affected by the doctrine of tawhid that it became, in the hands of Muslim artists, a less suitable, but still quite important method of translating the message of Islam into aesthetic media. This was achieved by the subjection of the figures of the paintings 1) to a comprehensive stylization and denaturalization, and 2) to the rules of organization which govern the structure of all works of Islamic art.”[15]

Isma’il Raji al-Faruqi went even a step further. He asserted that because of this unprecedented Islamic view of art, in general, and the notion of figurative representations, in particular, the latter, which was enjoyed and patronized mainly by the Muslim nobility or royalty in their palaces and libraries, was fully Islamic, aesthetically speaking and in terms of the goals thus intended to be attained, not to speak of the infinitesimal place the same occupies in the total artistic production of the Muslim world.[16]

According to Afif Bahnassi “the (Muslim) artist can portray faces but deletes details. This is known as a distraction that highlights man’s inability to create man from a despised fluid and breathing a spirit into him. The aim of the artist is not creation but creativity through belonging to Allah and not through portraying and emulating Him (“Those mostly punished on the Day of Judgement are those painters who emulate Allah’s creations”) (Hadith). The Muslim painter distances himself from emulation and distorts the picture as far as possible until he reaches the hazy shape… In reality, painting is prohibited only when the painter slides into unbelief while trying to assimilate pictures and emulate the Creator’s ability to create (“Allah is the only creating image-maker”), or when he likens in his picture the image of Allah. This is unbelief because there is nothing like Him. “There is nothing whatever like unto Him. And He is the One that hears and sees (all things)” (al-Shura, 11)…”[17]

Afif Bahnassi furthermore argues that the Muslim artists have always been more than able to draw real and precise pictures, giving the example of two artists who competed with each other. One of the two artists said that he can draw a picture in such a way that any one who sees it will think that it is coming out from the heart of the wall. The other artist said that he will draw such a one that he who sees it will think that it merges and mingles with the wall. Then each one of them drew up a picture showing a dancing girl. One of the pictures seemed as if it made its way into the wall, while the other seemed as if it made its way out of the wall.[18] However, the Muslim artist will “generally keep away from abiding by the rules of mathematical perspectives because they are not in tune with his tradition and because perspective in religion and art is spiritual. The painter’s view of his subject is based on the fact that the subject exists thanks to Allah’s power. Thus, the optic rays are not relatively conic but absolute, parallel, and emanate from the universe at large. It is for these reasons that paintings seem to be flat without a third dimension or a depth.”[19]

Nonetheless, regardless of how much subjected to stylization and denaturalization, drawing human beings, by and large, failed to appeal to the mainstream of Islamic arts. In addition to what we have already stated, such was the case also because man, with the sole exception of prophets, is a being prone to sinning and defiling his innocent and pure soul — sometimes more and sometimes less. Therefore, the refined Islamic aesthetic preference always considered man as objectionable, at most, or least fitting, at least, an object to be employed as a vehicle for presenting an aesthetic expression of tawhid and of that Supreme Beauty associated only with God and His revealed will or words. Despite an artist’s right goal and the rightly selected themes, plus an artist’s enormous talent and skill, the mere appearance of humans would always call to mind the dark side of man and his ominous impression on creation, thus getting seriously in the way of the penetration of the avid spectator’s attention to the sublime purpose of Islamic art. Indeed, the more poorly executed a work of art — if it abounds in ingredients and themes underscoring naturalistic qualities, for example — the wider and hardly bridgeable gap between the spectator and the purpose of Islamic art materializes. On seeing a human figure used for decoration and ornamentation — especially if the naturalism of the same figure has been buttressed one way or another — the spontaneous reaction of a righteous seeker of inspirational flashes in arts is bound to be reminiscent of the spontaneous reaction of the angels after they had been told of man’s vicegerency assignment on earth: “…Wilt Thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood?… (Al-Baqarah 30)

This would be the case if a person represented on an ornament or drawing is anonymous. But if he is known to a beholder and if there is a certain emotional and psychological thread connecting the two, then the case becomes all the more serious and so more repugnant to a person saturated with a tawhidic mentality. As a result of such a relationship, a beholder under some fertile conditions can easily, little by little, develop a degree of fear, melancholy, love, admiration, veneration, etc., with regard to a person (or persons) represented and his surviving or commemorated legacy.

Islam’s sensitivity in safeguarding the belief in the Unity of God is very acute, seeking to halt all corruption of faith and block every passage through which any form of polytheism (shirk), either open or hidden (shirk is the only transgression that God does not forgive (al-Nisa’ 48, 116), may slip into the minds and hearts of the people. Among such passageways is the imitation of the followers of other faiths, philosophies and systems, who have crafted exaggerated respect for their saints, idols, heroes, saviors, geniuses, and all other important people. In the final analysis, the message of tawhid (God’s oneness) was abandoned for the first time on earth in favor of worshipping idols when the people began making pictures and statues of their dead or pious ancestors in order to remember them.[20] However, pressed by the strain of their spiritual crisis and haunted by their increasing qualms, the people eventually set out to admire and adore them, adding to this custom, bit by bit, until they had made the pictures and statues into deities, worshipping them, asking them for help, fearing their anger, and imploring them for blessings. It must be stressed, as a final point, that Islam is a religion for all mankind and for all ages. Its extreme caution and concern about preserving the belief in the Oneness of God while staying worlds apart from the practices of idolaters, is assuredly quite justified. What may seem unlikely in one environment may become acceptable in another, and what appears impossible at one time may materialize into reality at another.[21] According to Isma’il Raji al-Faruqi, Islam eliminated man from the field of aesthetic representation because “man is the ideal subject to charge with images of the divine”.[22]

It would be appropriate at this juncture to summarize the rulings pertaining to figures and figure-makers, and thus wind up our discussion on the matter, as provided by Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi:

  • The most strictly prohibited figures are those which are made to be worshipped in the place of, or in addition to, Allah…The most detestable among such figures are statues…
  • Next to this in sinfulness are figures which are not made to be worshipped but which are intended to imitate Allah’s creation…
  • After this are statues which are erected in public places in order to commemorate great personalities such as kings, leaders and celebrities; this applies equally to full-length statues and to busts.
  • Next are statues of living beings which are neither worshipped nor reverenced. There is general agreement that they are haram, except those which are not treated in a manner indicative of respect. Dolls or figures made of chocolate or sugar are clear exceptions.
  • Next are portraits of great people such as rulers and political leaders, especially when they are displayed or hung on walls. Strongly prohibited among these are portraits of tyrants, atheists, and immoral individuals, for to respect them is to degrade Islam.
  • Next are pictures of people or animals which are not accorded respect but constitute a display of luxury and high living, as, for example, when they cover a wall or the like. These are classified as detestable only.
  • Making and acquiring drawings or paintings of trees, lakes, ships, mountains and landscapes are permitted. However, if they distract from worship or lead toward extravagant living, they are disapproved.
  • Photographic pictures are basically permissible. They become haram only when the subject matter is haram, as, for example, in the case of idols, individuals who are revered either because of their religious or worldly status, especially the leaders of idolaters, communists or other unbelievers, or immoral individuals such as actors and entertainers.
  • Finally, if the prohibited statues and pictures are defaced or degraded, their use becomes permissible; an example of this are figures on a rug or carpet because they are walked upon.[23]

 

Conclusion: the beauty of Allâh

 

As said earlier, believing that Allâh is beautiful and that He loves beauty constitutes an Islamic tenet, which is based on an explicit tradition of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).[24] Furthermore, an Islamic tenet is to hold that Allâh is the fountainhead of all beauty, light, love, compassion, goodness and perfection. All these are ensured to be rightly and adequately represented within the earthly contexts at the hands of men, provided that Allâh and His revealed words are taken as both life’s source and a point of reference. However, no sooner do men forsake the divine foundation in their life affairs, than delusion, deception, ignorance, darkness, ugliness and vice in diverse forms and levels step in and start reigning supreme.

Of the goals of life that every believer strives to achieve is to recognize Almighty God and to live under the aegis of His infinite light and beauty. In order to make the progression towards the realization of this worthy goal a properly facilitated one, many strategies, systems and media have been perfected. When it comes to the spiritual realization on earth, no price, effort or sacrifice is deemed too huge in the sight of the believer to hold it back. Realizing the Islamic idea of beauty is as much a religious fulfillment as it is an impulsive terrestrial response to the inner yearnings of the soul for its Lord from Whom it came, to Whom it belongs and to Whom it ultimately returns.

The Islamic works of art in all its fields are artistic, spiritual and sentimental testimonies of the transcendental through the temporal. They uniquely express the awe of, love and longing for the divine. This profound and meaningful relationship between believers and divinity through the media of aesthetics and art climaxes in one’s de facto union with the divine kingdom upon one’s return to where he actually once came from, that is, passing from the temporal to the transcendental plane of existence. Strong desire for this ultimate and inevitable, yet blissful, union is palpable to an open mind and insightful heart in every aspect of Islamic aesthetics.

Apart from this philosophical and somewhat passive, so to speak, role played by Islamic aesthetics, it also plays a specifically proactive and functional role in which the avenues to a triumphant passage to the transcendental realm are presented and their adoption vigorously championed. In addition, through the power of the spirit of Islamic aesthetics, the barriers that may stand between a person and the Islamic notions of life, the universe, spirituality and God, which the works of Islamic aesthetics exemplify, are intended to be minimized and, at best, completely neutralized. This is to ensure that the quintessence exuded by the works of Islamic art, in particular, and by everything that bears the adjective ‘Islamic’, in general, is well received and comprehended. Hence, the roles of Islamic aesthetics appear to be three-fold, each one complementing the other. It goes without saying, therefore, that one’s concentration on the concepts of beauty and the beautiful in Islam should encompass all of the three domains.

The pinnacle of a process that commences as early as when a believer makes a first step towards the comprehension and recognition of God in this world is when he is admitted in jannah (Paradise) where absolutely nothing will stand between him and seeing his Lord in His original, perfect and infinite light and beauty. Believers’ vision of their Lord in Paradise will be indisputable. It will be as strong and unambiguous as seeing the sun and the bright full moon in the clear sky during a clear day, as disclosed by the Prophet (pbuh).[25] The Qur’ân also testifies to this: “Some faces, that Day, will beam (in brightness and beauty), looking towards their Lord.” (al-Qiyâmah, 22-23) Witnessing the beauty of Allâh in Paradise is the greatest of joys and blessings that will be conferred on believers.[26]

By the same token, however, the greatest suffering and pain that non-believers will have to endure in Hell will be their inability to ever see the actual beauty and light of the Lord of the worlds. Nonetheless, the principles of justice demand that whosoever lives this terrestrial life but turns a blind eye to the beauty and light of Allâh clearly defined in the spheres of both His divine revelation and tangible creation is bound to stay away from Allâh’s beauty and light in the Hereafter as well. The Qur’ân says: “Verily, from (the Light of) their Lord, that Day, will they be veiled” (Al-Mutaffifîn, 15). The Fire of punishment will be to non-believers the only reality which they will sense and be in contact with because in this life they see and pay attention only to such things as lead away from truth to falsehood.

According to Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, the best perception of Allâh is the one through beauty because such a perception implies the knowledge of the characteristics of creation. Every creature knows its Creator through some of His attributes, and the most comprehensive knowledge is the one based on Allâh’s perfection, majesty and beauty. Allâh’s beauty is such that if the creation in its totality becomes as beautiful as its most beautiful element or being is, then if the inner and outer beauty of the entire creation is compared with the beauty of the Creator, the former would be more insignificant than a fading lamp in relation to the sun. It is a sufficient example of Allâh’s beauty to say that if a veil is lifted from Allâh’s holy Face, His light will burn all visions from among His creation beholding Him. Also, it is a sufficient example of Allâh’s beauty to say that every beauty, both inner and outer, in this world and in the Hereafter is the result of His creation. Hence, one could try to imagine how beautiful the source of the pervasive beauty in this world and in the Hereafter is. Yet another proof of Allâh’s infinite beauty is likewise the fact that to Him all glory, all authority, all munificence, all excellence, all knowledge and all kindness belong. On the word of the Prophet (pbuh), the light of Allâh’s ‘Face’ shone over the darkness and because of the same light both this world and the Hereafter became fit for their respective purposes.[27]

Of Allâh’s beautiful names is jamîl, the Beautiful.[28] However, nothing can ever be like Him in any aspect of existence, as Allâh explicitly says about Himself in the Qur’ân (Al-Shûra, 11). No name, or attribute, or action, or expression, or anything else that we humans use is like Allâh. He is the Creator and Lord; the rest is His creation. He is the Master; the rest is His servants. He is transcendental and eternal; the rest is temporary and will perish. Whatever we say about Allâh, the rule that always applies, in addition to the one stated above, is that He and things directly related to His holy Self are beyond both human imagination and expression. No mind can imagine Him and no words can express the actual meaning of His holy Self and His holy realm. Allâh said about Himself: “No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision; He is Subtle (latîf) well-aware” (al-An’âm 103). Thus, the Prophet (pbuh) advised that we contemplate the creation of Allâh and not the essence of Allâh, or His holy Self, because our minds cannot possibly encompass the latter.[29] According to Abdullâh Ibn `Abbâs, the direct motive for the Prophet’s counsel was the presence of a group of people who used to debate the nature of Allâh, which the Prophet (pbuh) obviously did not consent to.

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah continued: “Allâh’s beauty has four categories: the beauty of His holy Self, the beauty of His holy Attributes, the beauty of His actions and the beauty of His holy Names. His holy Names are all beautiful. His holy Attributes are all perfect. His actions are all based on wisdom, interest, justice and mercy. As regards the beauty of His holy Self and how He looks like, nobody except Him can grasp that and nobody except Him knows it. Of the knowledge concerning His holy Self, created beings possess only certain information with which He introduced Himself to those servants of His whom He wanted to honor. His infinite beauty is concealed from the creation with a ‘robe’ (ridâ’), which is Allâh’s glory, and with a ‘veil’ (izâr), which is Allâh’s majesty, as mentioned by the Messenger of Allâh (pbuh).”[30]

Abdullâh Ibn ‘Abbâs is reported to have said about Allâh’s beauty: “(Allâh’s) holy Self is veiled with (His) holy Attributes, and (His) holy attributes are veiled with (His) actions. So, can you imagine a beauty that is veiled with the qualities of perfection and is covered with the qualities of infinite glory and majesty?”[31]

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah went on to conclude: “From this meaning some approximate idea as to the beauty of Allâh’s holy Self (can be established). A servant of God progresses from the knowledge of (Allâh’s) actions to the knowledge of the holy Attributes, and from the knowledge of the holy Attributes to the knowledge of the holy Self. Whenever he witnesses a beautiful thing in relation to the actions (of Allâh), he will draw conclusions with regard to the beauty of the holy Attributes. Next, on the basis of the beauty of the holy Attributes, he will draw conclusions with regard to the beauty of the holy Self.”[32]

 

 


[1] Visit: http.//www.islamonline.net/fatwaapplication/english

[2] Muslim, Sahih Muslim, Book 024, Number 5250.

[3] Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, Halal and Haram in Islam, (New Delhi: ALBOOKS-DELHI, 1988), p. 100-120.

[4] Al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 3, Book 34, Hadith No. 428.

[5] Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, Halal and Haram in Islam, p. 111.

[6] Abu Dawud, Sunan Abi Dawud, Book 032, Hadith No. 4146.

[7] Al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 4, Book 54, Hadith No. 449.

[8] Muslim, Sahih Muslim, Book 024, Hadith No. 5255.

[9] Ibid., Book 024, Hadith No. 5261.

[10] Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, Halal and Haram in Islam, p. 115.

[11] Al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Ahadith al-Anbiya’, Hadith No. 3103. Abu Dawud, Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab al-Manasik, Hadith No. 1732. Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Kitab Baqi Musnad al-Mukaththirin, Hadith No. 14742. Ibn Hisham, al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, (Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-‘Arabi, 1996), vol. 4, p. 55.

[12] Ahmad Muhammad ‘Isa, Muslims and Taswir, translated by Harold W. Glidden, in Fine Arts in Islamic Civilization, p. 67.

[13] Lois Lamya al-Faruqi, Islam and Art, p. 98.

[14] Ibid., p. 109-111.

[15] Ibid., p. 108.

[16] Isma’il Raji al-Faruqi, Al-Tawhid: its Implications for Thought and Life, p. 196.

[17] Afif Bahnassi, The Islamic Architecture and its Specificities in Teaching Curricula, http://www.isesco.org.ma/pub/Eng/Islarch/P5.htm

[18] Ibid.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, Halal and Haram in Islam, p. 101.

[21] Ibid., p. 101-102.

[22] Isma’il Raji al-Faruqi, Islam and Architecture, in “Fine Arts in Islamic Civilization, p. 115.

[23] Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, Halal and Haram in Islam,

http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/Q_LP/ch2s2pre.htm.

[24] Muslim, Sahîh Muslim, Book 001, Hadîth No. 164.

[25] Al-Bukhâri, Sâhih al-Bukhâri, Kitâb Tafsîr al-Qur’ân, Hadîth No. 4215.

[26] Mukhtasar Tafsîr Ibn Kathîr, Ikhtasarahû Muhammad ‘Ali al-Sâbûni, (Beirut: Dâr al-Qur’ân al-Karîm, 1981), vol. 3 p. 576.

[27] Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, al-Fawâ’id, p. 202.

[28] Ibid., p. 202.

[29] Hasan al-Banna, Inquiring about the Nature of Allah, http://www.islamonline.net/english/index.shtml.

[30] Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, al-Fawâ’id, p. 203.

[31] Ibid., p. 203.

[32] Ibid., p. 203

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *